Its name, like the names of the other months (except March and May), comes from the characteristic features associated with the natural phenomena accompanying the month or the rhythm of agricultural work performed at that time. The name “styczeń” comes from the word “tyki”, an item which the farmers made at that time. The name may also come from “styk” due to the fact that the month occurs at the turn of the year. In Old Polish, January was also called “tyczeń”, “godnik” and “ledeń” (modern Czech name of the month: leden).
The Latin name for January, Ianuarius (see: Roman calendar), which has been borrowed by most European languages, comes from the god of beginnings, Janus.
In the month of January, the Earth is closest to the Sun. Earth's perihelion falls on January 3 and aphelion on June 4. The difference in distance between maximum approach and distance away is 3.5%, which translates to a 6.9% difference in solar energy. This means that the Southern Hemisphere gets more solar energy throughout the year than the Northern Hemisphere (since it is the Northern Hemisphere that faces the sun in January).
Some important dates:
- On January 2, 1839, Frenchman Louis Daguerre took the first photograph of the Moon.
- On January 7, Christmas is celebrated in the Orthodox Church.
- On January 10, 1863, the world's first underground line opened in London. The wagons were pulled by steam locomotives.
- On January 15, 2001, Wikipedia was founded.
- January 18 is Winnie the Pooh day. On this day in 1882, its creator, A. A. Milne, was born.
- On January 20, 1895, a broken arm was first X-rayed.
- On January 23, 1831, the flag of Belgium changed from horizontal to vertical stripes.
- On January 30, 1648, the Netherlands gained independence from the Holy Roman Empire
Proverbs and sayings associated with the month of January:
- Gdy w styczniu deszcz leje, robi złe nadzieje. (If it rains in January, hope is unfulfilled)
- Jeśli styczeń zachlapany, to lipiec zapłakany, a kiedy w styczniu lato, w lecie zima za to. (If it rains in January, July will be rainy. If it is warm in January, July will be cool).
- Jeśli trawa w styczniu nie zmarznie, to w sierpniu się spali. (If the grass does not freeze in January, it will burn in August).
- Gdy styczeń burzliwy ze śniegiem, lato burzliwe z deszczami. (If it snows in January, the summer will be rainy).
- Gdy styczeń najostrzejszy, tedy roczek najpłodniejszy. (The colder January, richer the harvest).
- Jeśli styczeń mrozi, lipiec skwarem grozi. (If January is frosty, it will be hot in July).
- Styczeń mroźny i biały zwiastuje letnie upały. (If January is frosty and snowy, it will be hot in summer).
- Po styczniu jasnym i białym, będą w lecie upały. (If January is snowy, it will be hot in summer).
Source: miesiace.pl/styczen/; paczka-wiedzy.pl/styczen-ciekawostki/